One of the most exciting aspects of our Bibibi project was observing code-blending in young bimodal bilingual children. We explored the types of code-blending found and hypothesized a model of bilingual language architecture that could account for the possibility of this phenomenon. However, we couldn’t test this model using only data from children, because their code-blending was fairly limited due to their young age.
With this in mind, we took up a new study of bimodal bilingual adults! This study examines various aspects of bimodal bilingual language use by Coda adults, focusing on the nature of their code-blending.
What is code-blending? It’s the bimodal-bilingual analogue to code-switching, but it takes advantage of the different primary modalities of sign and speech by producing (parts of) an utterance simultaneously. Here are a couple of examples of code-blending (from our acceptability judgment task).
This project includes the collaboration of many people! Here are some of those who have collaborated on various aspects of this project:
|At UConn||At UFSC||At Gallaudet||At other institutions|
|Diane Lillo-Martin||Ronice Müller de Quadros||Deanna Gagne||Jonathan Bobaljik|
|Sabine Laszakovits||Marilyn Mafra Klamt||Deborah Chen Pichler||Susanne Wurmbrand|
|Linghui (Eva) Gan||Melissa Avino||Emily Noschese|
|Lily Kwok||Grace Keller||Kathryn Davidson|
Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Lillo-Martin, Diane, Polinsky, Maria & Emmorey, Karen (2016). Heritage signers: Bimodal bilingual structures. Poster presentation, Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition – North America (GALANA) 7; UIUC, Illinois; September 2016.
Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Davidson, Kathryn, Lillo-Martin, Diane & Emmorey, Karen (2017). Depicting Signs in Bimodal Bilingual Code Blending. Formal and Experimental Advances in Sign Language Theory (FEAST); University of Iceland, Reykjavik; June 2017.
Quadros, Ronice Müller de & Lillo-Martin, Diane (2017). Brazilian bimodal bilingual as heritage signers. Poster presentation, Boston University Conference on Language Development (BUCLD); Boston, MA; November 2017.
Lillo-Martin, Diane (2017). Bimodal Bilingualism and the Architecture of the Language Faculty. Invited Keynote presentation, II Coloquio Internacional sobre la Lengua de Señas Peruana. Lima, Peru; November 9, 2017.
Lillo-Martin, Diane (2018). Code-blending in Bimodal Bilingual Children and Adults. Colloquium, Diversity in Language, Culture and Cognition; Max-Plank Institute for Psycholinguistics; Nijmegen, The Netherlands; March 8, 2018.
Lillo-Martin, Diane (2018). Constraints on Bimodal Code-switching and -blending. Colloquium, Leibniz-Zentrum Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (ZAS); April 23, 2018.
Lillo-Martin, Diane (2019). Tap your Head and Rub your Tummy: How Complex can Simultaneous Production of Two Languages Get? Invited Plenary, Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting. New York, NY; January 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8U9olUwPn7E
Lillo-Martin, Diane, Quadros, Ronice, Bobaljik, Jonathan David, Gagne, Deanna, Kwok, Lily, Laszakovits, Sabine, Mafra, Marilyn & Wurmbrand, Susanne (2020). Constraints on code-blending: Evidence from acceptability judgments. Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting; New Orleans, LA; January 2020.
Lillo-Martin, Diane (2020). Heritage language characteristics of bimodal bilinguals. Plenary presentation; Annual Conference of the German Linguistics Association (DGfS); Hamburg, Germany; March 2020. (Invited for the Workshop on Linguistic diversity and linguistic modalities: New perspectives on bimodal (sign language/oral language) bilingualism). https://lecture2go.uni-hamburg.de/l2go/-/get/v/36745
Laszakovits, Sabine (with Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Noschese, Emily Jo & Lillo-Martin, Diane) (2022). Object shift in ASL and Libras. Colloquium, University of Salzburg; April 2022.
Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Klamt, Marilyn Mafra, Perniss, Pamela & Lillo-Martin, Diane. Visual cohesion in Coda multimodal productions. Poster presentation, International Conference on Sign Language Acquisition (ICSLA); Boston University / Online; June 2022.
Lillo-Martin, Diane (2022). Bimodal bilingual code-blending: Possibilities and constraints. Colloquium, University of Tromsø (UiT); June 2022.
Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Klamt, Marilyn Mafra, Perniss, Pamela & Lillo-Martin, Diane. Visual cohesion in Coda bimodal bilingual productions. Poster presentation, Boston University Conference on Language Development (BUCLD); November 2022.
Quadros, Ronice Müller de & Lillo-Martin, Diane (2018). Brazilian bimodal bilinguals as heritage signers. Languages 3(3), 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages3030032
Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Davidson, Kathryn, Lillo-Martin, Diane & Emmorey, Karen (2020). Code blending speech with depicting signs. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 10(2), 290-308. https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.17043.qua
Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Lillo-Martin, Diane & Klamt, Marilyn Mafra (2020). Sobreposição de línguas: descrições linguísticas [Code blending: Linguistic descriptions]. In Ronice Müller de Quadros (Ed.), Fórum Linguístico (Dossiê Documentação de Libras) 17(4), 5464 –5482. Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/forum/article/view/77231
Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Lillo-Martin, Diane, Klamt, Marilyn Mafra, & Pires, K.T. (2020). Estudos experimentais com bilíngues bimodais: aspectos metodológicos [Experimental studies with bimodal bilinguals: Methodological aspects]. Revista Linguí∫tica 16(3), 372-403. UFRJ. https://doi.org/10.31513/linguistica.2020.v16n3a33485
Laszakovits, Sabine, Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Noschese, Emily Jo & Lillo-Martin, Diane (to appear, 2022). Object shift in ASL and Libras. In Sabine Laszakovits & Zheng Shen (Eds.), The Size of Things II: Movement, Features, and Interpretation. Berlin: Language Science Press.
Lillo-Martin, Diane, Chen Pichler, Deborah & Gagne, Deanna (to appear, 2022). Lessons to be learned from bimodal bilingualism. Invited submission, special issue of the Croatian Review of Rehabilitation Research.
Quadros, Ronice Müller de, Lillo-Martin, Diane & Klamt, Marilyn Mafra (to appear, 2022). Blending Libras and Portuguese: Acceptability variables. Cilene Rodrigues and Andrés Saab (Eds.), Formal Approaches to Languages of South America. Springer.
Lillo-Martin, Diane, Gu, Shengyun, Kozak, L. Viola & Chen Pichler, Deborah (to appear, 2023). The phonology of bimodal bilinguals. Invited submission; Mark Amengual (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Bilingual Phonetics and Phonology.